Medical Dictionary Definitions A-Z List
Medical Dictionary Definitions A - Z - «J»:
James Ramsay Hunt
James Ramsay Hunt: See: Ramsay Hunt, James....
James Watson: See: Watson, James....
Jammed finger: Lay terminology that refers to an injury of the finger joints. The most common joint affected is the proximal interphalangeal joint (PIP), the joint formed by the first and second finger bones. A jammed finger occurs because of an on-end injury to the tip of a finger. The injury most ...
Janiceps: Conjoined twins whose heads are fused together, with the faces looking in opposite directions, like the two-faced Roman god Janus. The suffix -ceps comes from the Latin caput, meaning head. See also: Craniopagus; Syncephaly....
Janus kinase 3
Janus kinase 3: See: JAK3....
Japanese encephalitis: A mosquito-borne viral infection, the leading cause of viral encephalitis in Asia.
Japanese encephalitis virus cannot be transmitted from person-to-person.
Number of cases: About 50,000 cases of Japanese encephalitis are reported annually from the People's Republic of China,...
Jaundice: Yellow staining of the skin and sclerae (the whites of the eyes) by abnormally high blood levels of the bile pigment bilirubin. The yellowing extends to other tissues and body fluids. Jaundice was once called the "morbus regius" (the regal disease) in the belief that only the touch of a ki...
Jaundice, congenital hemolytic
Jaundice, congenital hemolytic: Known also as hereditary spherocytosis (HS), this is a genetic disorder of the red blood cell membrane clinically characterized by anemia, jaundice (yellowing) and splenomegaly (enlargement of the spleen).
In HS the red cells are smaller, rounder, and more fragile tha...
Jaundice, hemolytic: Jaundice caused by
destruction of red blood cells. This can be an inborn
condition (hereditary spherocytosis) or it may be caused by
a blood transfusion from a different blood group, infection
in the blood, or some types of poisoning. See also
Jaundice, neonatal: Yellowish
staining of the skin and whites of the newborn's eyes
(sclerae) by pigment of bile (bilirubin). In newborn
babies a degree of jaundice is normal. It is due to the
breakdown of red blood cells (which release bilirubin into
the blood) and to the immaturity of the ne...
Jaundice, obstructive: Jaundice caused by obstruction of the bile ducts, as with gallstones. Additional symptoms of obstructive jaundice include dark urine, pale feces, and itching, although there is no pain. Sometimes the cause of obstructive jaundice is cancer
(malignant obstructive jaundice), in...
Jaw: The bones below the mouth (the mandible) and the bone above the mouth just above the mouth (the maxilla). The word jaw comes from the Anglo-Saxon
ceowan meaning to chew. ...
Jawbone: 1. As a noun, a bone of the jaw, particularly the mandible.
2. As a verb, to try and influence with
words (jawbones) rather than force....
JC virus: (JCV) A virus that commonly causes infections of no consequence in children with a normal immune system but which is responsible for an infection of the brain and spinal cord called progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) in people with AIDS and other forms of immune system impair...
JCI: The Journal of Clinical Investigation, a highly regarded biomedical journal....